Navigating the United States healthcare system can be a daunting task for native English speakers, but it can become a true barrier to medical care for Asian Americans with limited English proficiency. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 5.6% percent of the U.S. population identifies as Asian or Asian American, with the three largest ethnic groups being Chinese, Indian, and Filipino. There is a common assumption that Asian Americans are more acculturated to the American lifestyle than other ethnic minorities. This assumption may cause healthcare professionals to overlook the cultural barriers some Asian Americans may face in accessing healthcare.
Successful healthcare communication requires an awareness of how the values of patients from other cultural backgrounds differ from those traditionally held in Western culture. However, the term Asian American represents a diversity of cultures. Asian Americans come from over 50 countries, speak over 100 different languages, and belong to diverse ethnic groups, each with their own cultural values and healthcare needs.
With this in mind, the following points are meant to illuminate the Western assumptions which interfere with effective communication with patients from Asian cultures. In general, the structure of the American medical profession assumes:
Questioning these assumptions is a first step in meaningful cross-cultural communication.
Many Asian Americans place a strong emphasis on family ties and interpersonal relationships. The family becomes a source of identity and guidance during times of crisis, and individuals are often expected to demonstrate self-control during difficult situations. Individualistic, disruptive behavior is discouraged. Thus, some Asian Americans may not be willing to express negative emotions of grief or sadness within a healthcare setting, in order to preserve harmony. This does not mean these feelings are absent. In addition, reluctance to seek care can originate in a desire not to negatively impact the family. Finally, patients may need to consult with family members before deciding on a course of treatment. Healthcare providers should understand that Asian American families often value group consensus when making important medical decisions. When creating outreach materials, keep the following in mind:
In the literature on cultural differences, Asians are generally considered “high-context” communicators, because meaning is not explicit but rather implicit. Body language, tone of voice, eye contact, and gestures can convey as much as spoken or written words. Because “low context” (Western) communicators place far more importance on spoken and written speech, they might misinterpret behavioral cues.
For example, in healthcare encounters as well as business encounters, respect is demonstrated differently. If you were raised in a traditionally Western family, you’ll recognize the importance of eye contact. Looking someone directly in the eye and speaking frankly is considered a sign of respect. However, in many high-context cultures, looking directly into the eyes of a person of higher status can be considered disrespectful. Therefore, lack of eye contact does not mean someone is not paying attention. In addition, smiling and nodding does not always indicate understanding. In many settings, one should not question instructions given by a person of status, such as a doctor. To say one does not understand implies that the instructions were poorly explained. To articulate such a challenge would cause a doctor to lose face. Nobody, in any culture, wishes to insult the person they are asking for help!
Follow these guidelines:
Many cultural groups feel that uncertainty is an inherent part of life, especially in the face of suffering over which one has very little control. This belief can directly impact attitudes about sickness and long-term medical treatment. To a Western mind, which prefers vigorous action in response to any challenge, this attitude can look like a fatalistic unwillingness to receive care and cooperate with doctors. This is not the case. This attitude reflects a different understanding of how to conceptualize illness, not that illness cannot or should not be treated. Americans are accustomed to talking about “fighting” or “battling” diseases such as cancer or depression. Not everyone takes this attitude, especially because it presumes the disease is something external to the person.
According to a study conducted by the Asian American Health Initiative, many Asian Americans believed that their medical providers did not understand their cultural values. As a result, they had less confidence in the care provided, leading to delayed diagnoses and worse outcomes. Pre-translation cultural assessment, transcreation of outreach material, and cross-cultural training for front line staff can help healthcare providers communicate more effectively within the context of cultural beliefs around illness, healing, and healthcare services.